[21], With the world market for synthetic dyes and other chemical products dominated by the German industry, German firms competed vigorously for market shares. In the United Kingdom Brunner Mond, Nobel Industries, United Alkali Company and British Dyestuffs merged to form Imperial Chemical Industries in September 1926. Only in the case of Auschwitz, where IG Farben had constructed a plant next to the concentration camp with the clear intent to use inmates as slave workers, did the tribunal consider the evidence sufficient to prove that IG Farben acted on its own initiative. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. [86], On 10 November 2003 its liquidators filed for insolvency,[87] but this did not affect the existence of the company as a legal entity. [4] IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. Although cartels were attempted, they lasted at most for a few years. This prompted Duisberg and Heinrich von Brunck, chairman of BASF, to accelerate their negotiations. The French followed suit in the areas they controlled. Altogether its annual net profit was around RM 0.5 billion (equivalent to 2 billion 2017 euros). One ton of Zyklon B was enough to kill around 312,500 people. I, in charge of nitrogen and gasoline production; Head of the chemical warfare committee at the war ministry; 8 years including time already served; died 1990, Removed from trial due to medical reasons, 2 years including time already served-died 1966, 6 years including time already served; died 1969, 2 years including time already served-died 15 Nov 1950, 3 years including time already served; died 1966, 1½ years including time already served; died 1965, 2 years including time already served; died 1954, 8 years including time already served; died 1967, Head of sales for dyestuffs for south-eastern Europe, 1½ years including time already served. (Monowitz came to be known as Auschwitz III; Auschwitz I was the administrative centre and Auschwitz II-Birkenau the extermination camp.) [72] Those who served prison sentences included: Agfa, BASF and Bayer remained in business; Hoechst spun off its chemical business in 1999 as Celanese AG before merging with Rhône-Poulenc to form Aventis, which later merged with Sanofi-Synthélabo to form Sanofi. They produced everything from pharmaceuticals to manufacturing chemicals to explosives. Held from 1947 to 1948 as one of the subsequent Nuremberg trials, the IG Farben trial saw 23 IG Farben directors tried for war crimes and 13 convicted. The four largest quickly bought the smaller ones. There were five counts against the IG Farben directors: Of the 24 defendants arraigned, one fell ill and his case was discontinued. It was the largest plant in the world, and one of the cheapest, because it was built and operated by slave labourers from the Auschwitz concentration camp. Planning, preparation, initiation, and waging of wars of aggression and invasions of other countries. War crimes and crimes against humanity through participation in the, Membership in a criminal organization, the. Orders to that effect again are to be given to the leading German gentlemen so that there may be no misunderstanding in their execution. In World War II, Degesch (42.5 per cent owned by IG Farben) was the trademark holder of Zyklon B, the poison gas used at some Nazi extermination camps. Il a eu lieu du 27 août 1947 au 30 juin 1948. Agen saraf Sarin mula-mula ditemui oleh IG Farben. Neither were production or distribution facilities consolidated nor did the commercial staff cooperate. The charges consequently centered on preparing to wage an aggressive war, but also on slave labor and plundering. [46] A Bayer employee wrote to Rudolf Höss, the Auschwitz commandant: "The transport of 150 women arrived in good condition. "IG Farben-Haus, Geschichte und Gegenwart" (in German). The IG Farben plant's workforce consisted of slave labour from Auschwitz, leased to the company by the SS for a low daily rate. The first American air raid on Frankfurt came on January 29, 1944, when a vast fleet of 800 B-17 Flying Fortresses obliterated the entire city—except the IG Farben … IG Farben was also the company that developed the Zyklon B gas that was used in Nazi death camps to kill Jews and other “undesirables.” Furthermore, IG Farben relied on concentration camp slave labor throughout World War II and the Holocaust. The company had been a major factor already in World War I, when their development of the Haber–Bosch process for nitrogen fixation compensated for Germany's being cut off from the Chilean nitrate trade and allowed IG Farben to produce synthetic nitrate and extract and process nitrogen for use in agricultural fertilizer. In June 1941, at the height of World War II, the German chemical giant IG Farben launched a factory to make synthetic rubber, a vital material for military purposes, at Monowitz, an Auschwitz satellite. The judges in this case, heard before Military Tribunal VI, were Curtis Grover Shake (presiding judge), former Chief Judge of the Indiana Supreme Court; James Morris from North Dakota; Paul M. Hebert, dean of the Law School of Louisiana State University; and Clarence F. Merrell, a lawyer from Indiana, and friend of Judge Shake, as an alternate judge. The tribunal concluded that the defendants could be held responsible only for this one case. [2], Willing cooperation with the slave labor utilization of the Third Reich was a matter of corporate policy that permeated the whole Farben organization... For this reason, criminal responsibility goes beyond the actual immediate participants at Auschwitz. In France Établissements Poulenc Frères and Société Chimique des Usines du Rhône merged to form Rhône-Poulenc in 1928. 9" (PDF). Gentlemen who are sent abroad should be made to realize that it is their special duty to represent National Socialist Germany. [43], Staff of the Bayer group at IG Farben conducted medical experiments on concentration-camp inmates at Auschwitz and at the Mauthausen concentration camp. As almost all its assets and all its activities had been transferred to the original constituent companies, IG Farben was from 1952 largely a shell company with no real activity. (1947–1948), also known as the IG Farben trial, was the sixth of 12 trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany (Nuremberg) against leading industrialists of Nazi Germany. 52", 2 July 1945, which allowed the US to disperse "ownership and control of such of the plants and equipment seized under this order as have not been transferred or destroyed". Farben and Krupp trials", "Elimination of German Resources for War", "Die Entflechtung der I.G. While it did not join a national compensation fund set up in 2001 to pay the victims, it contributed 500,000 DM (£160,000 or €255,646) towards a foundation for former captive labourers under the Nazi regime. Once Hitler officially came to power, they agreed on … 450, April 1949). According to prisoner-physicians who witnessed the experiments, after being given the drugs the women would experience circulation problems, bloody vomiting, and painful diarrhea "containing fragments of muscus membrane". Joined supervisory boards of Süddeutsche Kalkstickstoff-Werke AG Trostberg and Rheinauer Holzhydrolyse-GmbH, Mannheim. As of 2012[update] it still existed as a corporation in liquidation.[89]. IG Farben toimitti tuhoamis-ja keskitysleireille vankien surmaamiseen käytetyn Zyklon B-myrkkykaasun. [48] The poison gas was supplied by an IG Farben subsidiary, Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung MbH, or German Company for Pest Control). [10] When World War II began, it was the fourth largest corporation in the world and the largest in Europe. Zyklon B was pure Prussic acid, a lethal poison produced by I.G. In September 1944 Fritz ter Meer, a member of IG Farben's supervisory board and future chair of Bayer's board of directors, and Ernst Struss, secretary of the company's managing board, are said to have made plans to destroy company files in Frankfurt in the event of an American invasion. [37] One of IG Farben's subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers. Acting as leaders in a conspiracy to commit the crimes mentioned under counts 1, 2, and 3. Fritz Bauer Institute. O pesticida Zyklon B, para o qual a IG Farben detinha a patente e que era usado nas câmaras de gás para o assassínio massivo, era fabricado pela Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung), uma empresa detida pela IG Farben. The United States of America vs. Carl Krauch, et al., also known as the IG Farben Trial, was the sixth of the twelve trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany (Nuremberg) after the end of World War II. Contrary to other industries, the founders and their families had little influence on the top-level decision-making of the leading German chemical firms, which was in the hands of professional salaried managers. [34] The company is perhaps best known for its role in producing the poison gas Zyklon B. This same cyanide gas along with Zyklon B and malathion was used to exterminate millions of Jews and other groups. Une « petite IG », par opposition à lIG de 1925, a été fondée en 1905 par rapprochement concerté des sociétés chimiques BASF, Bayer et Agfa. The purpose of a corporation's continuing existence, being "in liquidation", is to ensure an orderly wind-down of its affairs. "[40] The company placed its resources, technical capabilities and overseas contacts at the German government's disposal. Products As Hoechst, Cassella and Kalle were connected by mutual equity shares and were located close to each other in the Frankfurt area, this allowed them to cooperate more successfully than the Dreibund, although they also did not rationalize or consolidate their production facilities.[28]. In February 1941 Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler signed an order supporting the construction of an IG Farben Buna-N (synthetic rubber) plant—known as Monowitz Buna Werke (or Buna)—near the Monowitz concentration camp, part of the Auschwitz concentration campcompl… The product is notorious for its use by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust to murder approximately 1.1 million people in gas chambers installed at … Farben. [45], For one experiment, which tested an anaesthetic, Bayer had 150 women sent from Auschwitz to its own facility. It had been continually criticized over the years for failing to pay compensation to the former labourers; its stated reason for its continued existence after 1952 was to administer its claims and pay its debts. Weiler-ter Meer, concentrated on high-quality specialty dyes. In 1908 Hoechst and Cassella acquired 88 percent of the shares of Chemische Fabrik Kalle. During a trip to the United States in the spring of 1903, he had visited several of the large American trusts such as Standard Oil, U.S. Steel, International Paper and Alcoa. est le sixième des douze procès pour crimes de guerre organisés après la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale par les autorités américaines dans leur zone d'occupation en Allemagne, à Nuremberg. [7], The company had ties in the 1920s to the liberal German People's Party and was accused by the Nazis of being an "international capitalist Jewish company". [50], Peter Hayes (Industry and Ideology: I. G. Farben in the Nazi Era, 2001) compiled the following table showing the increase in Zyklon B ordered by Auschwitz (figures with an asterisk are incomplete). [23] In contrast, the chairman of Bayer, Carl Duisberg, argued for a merger. IG Farben's products included synthetic dyes, nitrile rubber, polyurethane, prontosil, and chloroquine. Die Degesch war zwar eine Verkaufsagentur, besaß aber das Patent zur Herstellung von Zyklon B. Anteilseigner der Degesch waren die I.G. Three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst, produced several hundred different dyes. Several IG Farben directors were found guilty of war crimes arising from their actions during WW2. Verfassungen der Welt. When the workers became too weak from starvation or illness to work for the cartel, they were gassed in the camp by a prized IG Farben product called Zyklon-B. When World War II began, it was the fourth largest corporation in the world and the largest in Europe. [31], IG Farben was controversial on both the far left and far right, partly for the same reasons, related to the size and international nature of the conglomerate and the Jewish background of several of its key leaders and major shareholders. 9, "Seizure of Property owned by I.G. Peter Hayes writes that the board did not meet after 1940, and that although Mann "continued to review the monthly sales figures for Degesch, he could not necessarily have inferred from them the uses to which the Auschwitz camp was putting the product". The twelve trials were all held before U.S. military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice. The defendants in this case had all been directors of IG Farben, a large German conglomerate of chemical firms. Farben Leverkusen and sold from the Bayer sales office through Degesch, an independent license holder. [41], This message was repeated by Wilhelm Rudolf Mann, who chaired a meeting of the Bayer division board of directors on 16 February 1938, and who in an earlier meeting had referred to the "miracle of the birth of the German nation": "The chairman points out our incontestable being in line with the National Socialist attitude in the association of the entire 'Bayer' pharmaceutica and insecticides; beyond that, he requests the heads of the offices abroad to regard it as their self-evident duty to collaborate in a fine and understanding manner with the functionaries of the Party, with the DAF (German Workers' Front), et cetera. [8] A decade later, it was a Nazi Party donor and, after the Nazi takeover of Germany in 1933, a major government contractor, providing significant material for the German war effort. [29] The designation was used as the title of an East German film, The Council of the Gods (1950). [1] IG Farben also developed processes for synthesizing gasoline and rubber from coal, and thereby contributed much to Germany's ability to wage a war despite having been cut off from all major oil fields. Zyklon-B IG Farben Degesch Connecting Zyklon-B and RU-486 According to the New York Times , research for RU-486 began under the supervision of French researcher Etienne-Emile Baulieu in conjunction with Groupe Roussel Uclaf, the French drug company for which he was a consultant. In October 1904 an Interessen-Gemeinschaft between Bayer, BASF and Agfa was formed, also known as the Dreibund or little IG. www.verfassungen.de. Thirteen defendants were found guilty,[68] with sentences ranging from 18 months to eight years. [54] According to the post-war testimony of Rudolf Höss, the Auschwitz commandant, he was asked by Walter Dürrfeld [de], technical manager of the IG Farben Auschwitz plant, whether it was true that Jews were being cremated at Auschwitz.